On July 4, 1847, roughly 700 U.S. troops congregated on a hill overlooking the recently captured ciudad to celebrate the Los Angeles' first American Independence Day. Californio forces under Andres Pico had surrendered just months before, and as the war raged on far to the south, the troops constituted an occupying force in what was still legally Mexican territory. They were, in fact, assembled in an earthwork fort meant to secure the Americans' hold over the city.
Perhaps for the benefit of the diverse and largely Spanish-speaking population below, orators recited the Declaration of Independence twice -- first in English, then in Spanish. Army Lieutenant J. W. Davidson then raised the Stars and Stripes. From nearly anywhere in the city, Angelenos would have seen the flag flapping in the wind atop a 150-foot mast.
Today, Southern California's Fourth of July celebrations are less fraught with high political drama. For some, the holiday is an occasion for fireworks and pool parties. For others, it is a day to raise awareness of social justice issues. Now, as the region marks the nation's 236th birthday, join us for a look through historical images at how Southern Californians have observed the holiday in the past.